Originally Answered: Evolutionary Contradiction?
You need to learn about evolution before you try to refute it. Those things you mention don't add up for you because you seem to have a mental block against learning about them. You seem to have gotten your ideas from creationist web sites and books, which are notorious for their misrepresentation of the facts.
First off, there is no such thing as the Law of Conservation of Matter, particularly as you have described it.
There is the First Law of Thermodynamics, which states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed but may change from one form to another.
Also, as Einstein showed, energy and matter are interchangeable according to his equation
So matter can be created from energy, and matter can be destroyed by being converted to energy.
Stated simply so (hopefully) you can understand it, some of the energy of the Big Bang was converted to matter, primarily in the form of hydrogen. Stars formed from the primordial hydrogen and, through nuclear fusion in their cores, produced the heavier elements. These early stars then exploded as supernovae, which dispersed the heavier elements, which along with the remaining hydrogen then coalesced into other stars and planets.
I can't go into a detailed explanation of evolution here, but if you honestly(???) want to know how it works, here is a web site that will explain it.
@Former MN Science Teacher --sDg presents a bunch of links to question-begging web sites that present no real scientific evidence against evolution, nor any for their creation model.
For being a former science teacher, he does not really understand science even though he made the following statement:
"Science deals with what you can see, observe, record, test, repeat, etc."
Precisely. So why doesn't he accept evidence based on those principles? Science derives conclusions from the evidence. The reality of evolution is based on the evidence, but @Former MN Science Teacher rejects any evidence that is not compatible with his religious beliefs.
We cannot see large-scale evolutionary changes taking place because such changes take too long to observe. However, the fact that those changes have taken place is found in the evidence of the fossil record, genetics, comparative anatomy, and numerous other lines of investigation.
Also, a scientific theory must be able to make predictions that can be verified, and the theory of evolution has made such predictions.
Here's an example:
About fifty years ago, when it was first noted that apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes, but humans have 23, the creationists of the time pounced upon that as evidence against evolution. The evolutionist scientists, however, proposed that two of the chromosomes must have joined together in the line that led to man from the common ancestor, thus reducing the chromosome number.
That prediction has been verified with the results of the recent human and chimp genome projects. It was found that human chromosome 2 is the result of the joining of two chromosomes that have homologues in the chimp. The decoding of the genomes revealed that human chromosome 2 has a stretch of non-functioning telomere coding in the exact place it should be if the two chromosomes had joined in the human line from the common ancestor with the apes, and there is also non-functioning coding for a centromere in the exact location where the extra centromere would be as it occurs in one of the homologous chimp chromosomes, as well as a functioning centromere in the same location as in the other homologous chimp chromosome.
What does @Former MN Science Teacher --sDg say to refute that? Nothing. Because he cannot.
And evolutionary theory makes several other predictions that have been verified. It also makes predictions about things that would be found if it is false. Those things have not been found.
An example is what is found in the fossil record. Evolutionary theory would be falsified if any of the 5,000 species of present-day species of mammals or 10,000 present-day species of birds were found in the fossil strata where they should not be found. No such finds have been made.
The fossil record presents an evolutionary sequence through the strata. That is a fact.
As @Nimrod said, "Thankfully for the students of Minnesota, a science teacher who does not understand the difference between evolution and speciation (or even the definition of the words evolution and scientific method) is no longer in a public school classroom."
Originally Answered: Evolutionary Contradiction?
Let's step away from The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection and think about your question from a general perspective. What if someone came up to you and said the following:
I believe in magic and supernatural forces. I don't understand science. I mean I really don't understand science. Why do I have to learn something I don't understand? And, because I don't understand it, then all the scientists who have worked in this area for generations must be wrong.
It is not adding up for you because you do not have enough scientific education and training. Much has already been covered by others so I will not address the points about the word Theory as used by scientists and the notion of proof.
First off, apparently you are misinformed. Humans are in the family of great apes, not monkeys. Monkeys have tails. We share genes with many other species including genes that are very similar to those in fish, protists, bacteria and archaebacteria. The data from molecular biology are the best lines of evidence that support the theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.
You are missing the key point about the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Selection acting on randomly generated mutations makes all the difference.
More study of physics will show that the principle of conservation of mass in a closed system under classical conditions is usually the case. Throw in mass-energy equivalence (you know that famous e=mc^2 bit) and general relativity and matter is regularly created/destroyed.
Matter can be created as long as there is an equivalent amount of energy that is converted. All the matter in the universe is balanced out by the negative gravitational potential energy so the total energy of the universe is zero.
That is all irrelevant to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection has nothing to do with the creation of the universe (see Big Bang Inflationary Cosmology), the origins of matter (see above) or even the creation of life (see abiogenesis). The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection deals with how the frequency of alleles in a population change over time.
Thankfully for the students of Minnesota, a science teacher who does not understand the difference between evolution and speciation (or even the definition of the words evolution and scientific method) is no longer in a public school classroom.